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Creating beautiful hair styles for a wedding

Girls usually want their hair to look beautiful, sleek and stylish if possible, and this is never more important than when attending a friend or family members wedding or even their own wedding! Many women have to put a lot of thought into what hairstyle they want, while some might have had their favoured design picked out from girlhood. There are loads of options to choose from, whether you want flowing mermaid-style locks, a fishtail braid or an elaborate chignon. Updos are particularly popular and a common choice for brides as well as guests who are attending an event at a Gloucester Hotel Wedding Venue like  If you want to have an updo on your wedding day, read on for the secret to successfully mastering this stunning style.

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Updo tips and tricks

The first thing you need to keep in mind when crafting your perfect updo is that the current style is not tightly slicked-back hair; instead, opt for looser, natural-looking designs that give you plenty of volume. How do you achieve this?

Switch on those hot rollers!

After washing your hair and applying a dollop of curling cream to the roots of your hair, blow dry your hair upside down and then gently brush it out. Once it is dry enough, divide it into big sections and place them in hot rollers. Once they are done, apply some curling cream to your fingers, take out all the rollers, and then run your fingers through your hair to achieve beautiful, loose, easy-to-manage curls.

Dig out your bobby pins

Bobby pins are a crucial element in the success of a long-lasting updo. Taking three-inch sections of hair beginning at the front of your head, secure each section with two crisscrossed bobby pins and do this until you have gathered up all of your hair.

Spritz with some spray

Once your style is complete, give your head the once-over with a light hairspray held approximately eight inches away from your head. This will ensure the design is secured throughout your special day and all that dancing, those photo sessions, and all of the hugging from adoring relatives.


For the finishing touch, add beautiful jewelled hair clips and pins for that extra “wow” factor.

Whatever style you end up plumping for, your tresses are sure to look radiant on your special day!

Choosing the best adhesive for metal to metal bonding

There are more ways to achieve metal to metal bonding than ever before, from age-old thermal joining techniques such as welding, brazing or soldering to mechanical fastening with hardware such as rivets and newer bonding options such as liquid adhesive or tape. If you have been wondering which to choose for your next metal to metal bonding project, read on, as here we look at the advantages and disadvantages of each.

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Metal fastenings

Metal fastenings offer some advantages over other options. They take less skill than welding or other thermal joining techniques and can even be achieved by automation; however, metal fastenings tend to put pressure on certain points of the material, which can in turn lead to uneven load distribution. Rusting can also occur when mechanical fastenings are used, as metals rub together and the gaps allow for oxidation. This can damage the integrity of the materials and the finished product as a whole.

Thermal joining techniques

Welding solves the issue of load distribution, but it is a labour intensive choice that requires specialist knowledge, resources and equipment, like those needed by column radiators company . Welding offers a more streamlined and clean look in comparison with mechanical fastenings.

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Metal bonding adhesive offer many advantages over traditional methods of affixing metal to metal. Adhesives ensure an even load distribution and can ensure the integrity of thin sheets of metal. Furthermore, this means the occurrence of rust is less likely. It also requires less specialist labour, equipment and resources, saving manufacturing companies money in the long run.

Adhesives are also malleable, which means they can accommodate changes in temperatures or vibrations. This won’t lead to the splitting or breaking of metals that are held in a certain position. Just like welding, adhesives offer a cleaner, more streamlined finish than rivets or other mechanical fastenings. These many advantages may explain why the global composite adhesives market is set to grow rapidly in the next few years.

Each process has its advantages and disadvantages; however, as you can see, metal to metal adhesives offer a wealth of advantages that more traditional methods simply can’t achieve. Most notably, perhaps, liquid and tape adhesives are becoming more commonly used in the aeronautics and the automobile industries, thanks in large to these beneficial factors.

How A Diamond Is Cut

Even though diamonds can be artificially made, they are not true diamonds. True diamonds are created exclusively by nature, forged from the molten magma at the heart of the planet. They are made from carbon, which is actually one of the most common materials in the world. It is their rarity and beauty that make demand for them so high. The most valuable diamonds are those that are completely transparent and show no imperfections whatsoever. So, how do they go from being mined from the earth into the delicate and stunning jewellery that we see in the jewellery stores?

There are several techniques used to cut and shape diamonds before they make it to the glass cabinet display in the jewellers. The process is much more labour intensive than cutting and shaping metals. For larger scale metal items Tapping Machines such as the ones you can see at  Cotswold Machinery will be used, for small pieces these may be manually shaped. But diamonds are much more complicated and it takes years of training before you are deemed skilled enough to cut and shape one of these beautiful gems. Here are the four techniques used:


The diamond must first be cut down to a smaller, more manageable size. A special cutter is used to cleave the stone along its tetrahedral line, the weakest point of the diamond. To hold the diamond in place while it’s cleaved, wax or cement is used to keep it still. The cutter can then cleave a sharp cut along the plane. A steel blade is then placed inside the groove and hit hard so the stone breaks in two.

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Bruiting or Cutting

This is the method employed to give diamonds their shape. When this process is done by hand, it is called bruiting. Cutting refers to the process completed by machine. For hand-shaping a diamond, the person cutting must rely on the toughness of the stone. Diamond is the strongest material one earth, so a cutter uses a diamond to cut the diamond.

The instrument used is like a small stick with a bowl of cement at the end to hold the diamond in place. One corner of the stone is left exposed and the cutter rubs the stone with two sticks. This is known as bruiting. When using a machine, a lathe holds the diamond in position while another diamond is rubbed against it.


If a stone shows no tetrahedral plane of weakness, cleaving won’t work. A blade made from phosphor bronze must be used which rotates at around 15,000 rpm. A laser can also cut diamonds, but this process takes many hours. Using a blade, the cutter must choose which area of the stone will become the table (the flat part of a diamond with the largest area) and which part will be suited to become the girdle (the rim with the stone with the biggest point of diameter).

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After the cutting process is complete, the diamond’s finished look is created by polishing. The gem is positioned onto an arm of a polishing wheel that will rotate it. The wheel is covered with a diamond powder that’s abrasive and softens and smooths the stone as it is pressed against the wheel and rotated.

What contraceptive methods are available?

Safe sex is the buzz word around once again and sex education lessons are not only focusing on the practice of safe sex but also the need for consent and trusting relationships. When it comes to choosing a contraceptive method it can seem like there are a hundred different choice so here is our handy little guide to some of the options that you have available to you.

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These are the most common form of contraception that are available on the market and you can get free condoms from your local sexual health clinic and they are available to buy in most supermarkets. They are relatively easy to use and unless you have a latex allergy will cause no issue to either partner. For those suffering from a latex allergy alternative condom materials are available. Condoms are available in both a male and female version and are the only safe sex method that not only helps to prevent pregnancy but are also effectiving at preventing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections from one partner from another. If you are worried about your sexual health you can find Home StI Kits London way from companies such as, there are companies across the country that offer this service as well as your standard sexual health clinics and GP practices that can also offer testing for you.

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Contraceptive Pill – this come in a number of different types, those that combine estrogen and progesterone and the progesterone only pill. The type of pill that you are offered will depend very much on you reasons for wanting the tablets as well as your weight and medical history. For some women the contraceptive pill brings some relief for gynaecological problems such as polycystic ovaries and endometriosis and well as heavy and painful periods. When taken regularly and correctly the pill is a great choice for those wishing to avoid pregnancy. To avoid the spread of an STI you should use these in conjunction with condoms to protect both yourself and your partner.

Implant and Injection – these are two alternative methods to contraception and again they regulate the way a woman ovulates. They are preferred by women who do not want to have to remember to take a tablet at the same time each day and are a popular choice by women who have recently had children. Again they will help with a variety of menstrual issues but do not protect against STIs.

Japanese Knotweed invading our land

By now you have probably heard of Japanese Knotweed and you may have even come into contact with this plant. It is a non indigenous plant here in the UK and it is creating headaches for property developers and builders as well as those with domestic gardens. If you have this plant on your land, it is important to ensure that you contact a professional such as Land Remediation Services company ash remediation to come and deal with it on your behalf.

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Here are some facts about the plant that will help to highlight why it can not be dealt with just like any other weeds in your garden.

  • In its natural environment Japanese Knotweed has other plants and animals to contend with that help to keep it under control. One of the reasons why it is such a problem here in the UK is that none of these natural inhibitors exist in our country. This is one of the reasons why in some areas the plant has become completely out of control.
  • It grows incredibly quickly and is very strong. Not only can it grow up to 10 centimetres per day during the summer months but it has no trouble growing up through your tarmac and concrete. Once the roots have found a weak spot they will break through this and will then rise to the surface and continue to flourish. It can therefore have a detrimental effect on the price of your property and some mortgage companies and house insurance companies will not cover a property or land that has knotweed on it.
  • Japanese Knotweed is not a new plant to the UK, although it is only relatively recently that is has become a large scale problem in some areas. It was in fact brought in and used by the Victorians. They favoured it as a plant to line railway tracks throughout the country due to its fast growing ability. Little did they know it would become so problematic in the future.

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  • It can take an incredibly long time to get the plant under control on a site and it reportedly took 4 years to control the Japanese Knotweed on the main arenas used in the 2012 London Olympics. It is for this reason that is listed amongst the top 100 invasive species of plant in the world and the disposal of the plant is under the regulations of control waste.

Does the Battle of Naboo have the Tanks of the Future?

Although it is much derided Star Wars Episode one, the fourth film in the franchise, does have some particularly astonishing scenes. The lightsaber battle between Darth Maul and the Jedi’s of Obi Wan Kenobi and Qui Gon Jinn for example, the setting of the Galactic Senate (have you spotted the Wookies and the ET’s yet?) plus the raw excitement of the dangerous Pod Race. There is also the climactic battle between the brave, but hopelessly outgunned Naboo indignenous Gungan’s against the might of the Trade Federation Droid army. The battle features some extremely nifty hovering tanks loaded with Droids. Whilst you can not drive a flaoting tank just yet there is away you can experience the real thing with a bit of Tank Driving with the help of Click on the link after you’ve read these thoughts on the battle.

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The Gungans have agreed to fight against the Trade Federation after being asked by Queen Amidala of the Naboo to create a diversion. The Trade Federation take the bait and send the bulk of their Droid Force out to face the Gungans. The are armed with floating anti gravity hover tanks and a huge amount of Droids armed with blasters. The Gungans are mounted and have a very handy water based shield that protects them from the cannon fire of tanks but the droids are soon deployed and start to make their steady advance towards the Gungan infantry. The only hope that the Gungans have is that the main power reactor on the Trade Federations ship is knocked out cutting the droids power rendering them useless.

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As the shield is penetrated by the droids the Gungans only have one option left. This is to throw the water plasma “Bombas”. These are handheld grenades that cause the Droids to short out. Large ones are catapulted and can even take out a tank. The weight of the Droids numbers prove too much for the Gungans but they are able to hold out long enough for young Anakin Skywalker to knock out the main reactor so that the Droids power fails and they fall lifeless to the ground.

While all of this is science fiction the hover tank is something that is being mooted as the next generation of tank. Tanks are famed for being able to go anywhere and over anything. Imagine then if it didn’t even need to touch the ground! Robots warriors and vehicles are actually a much closer prospect. Conflicts fought by remote control are looking like a real possibility.

Six Advantages of Silicone Hoses

There are other kinds of synthetic rubber, but none are as successful and versatile as silicone. How many chemicals can be used as a lubricant, an adhesive, a dry cleaning fluid ingredient, a cooking utensil and a gasket all before breakfast? It’s in engines where silicone is rapidly gaining ground, particularly for replacement hoses. Here are six of the qualities propelling us into the silicone age.

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Temperature Tolerance

There’s nothing quite like the smell of burning rubber. If you like it, you won’t like silicone. Silicone withstands high temperatures better than rubber and isn’t permanently damaged by low temperatures either. Silicone hose manufacturers say it’s reliable between about -60 degrees and +180 degrees Centigrade.

Chemical Resistance

Oils, coolants, brake fluids, petrol and battery acid are devastating to most materials, but silicone stands up to them extremely well. You can see a chemical comparison between silicone and alternative types of rubber compound here: Perished or burned rubber tends to stick to everything, and it’s a devil to get off: silicone doesn’t.

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For similar reasons, it’s less likely to oxidize and perish from long-term exposure to air, rain and temperature. In other words, it resists weathering, retains its flexibility and simply lasts longer. In contrast, old rubber hoses become stiff, cracked and glued on.

Vibration Damping

As some of us have discovered to our annoyance, rubber isn’t that quiet. The points at which it connects to a hard vibrating surface can generate nuisance noises and even contribute to additional vibration.

Silicone is substantially more sound-suppressing than rubber due to its better flexibility and can contribute to a quieter engine.


Silicone is more flexible, weight for weight, and retains that quality over time. As a result, it is often easier to fit a silicone hose in an awkward location or over a tight connector. Likewise, they are usually easier to get off again when necessary. They don’t bond with the fitting like rubber often does.

It’s Sexier!

Silicone hose manufacturers such as supply them in a range of bright colours that simply look great in a well-cared-for engine. It also makes it easier to distinguish one part from another.

And it’s not only car lovers that think it’s sexier – silicone is rapidly replacing rubber in sex toys and “rubberwear”. Anything that sexy is bound to make your engine race faster!

Six advantages of galvanised steel

When metals are used in construction, one of the key considerations is how long the item is expected to last. Galvanised steel is a popular metal thanks to its intrinsic protection from corrosion.

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Any good chemistry student will tell you that the process of galvanisation coats the metal in question with a thin layer of a more reactive metal, usually zinc. Because the coating is more reactive than the metal used for the part, it will oxidise instead of the part itself. Let’s take a look at some of the key advantages of galvanised steel over other materials.

Reduced maintenance

When steel is galvanised, the process helps to make it far less likely to shrink or crack when it is in use. Similarly, galvanised steel has far superior resistance to water and abrasion than non-galvanised steel.

Protection across the board

Unlike many other corrosion protection options, especially those that are carried out when a part is in place, galvanisation offers total protection against corrosion and rusting. This is because the entire part is protected when it is galvanised.

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Peace of mind

When items such as the ductwork parts available at are galvanised, they are done so in line with a whole raft of international standards. This ensures that they are up to the job, providing both reliability and predictability.

Low cost

Not only does galvanised steel offer fantastic value when it is first installed, but it also offers great-long term value. Even if the cost of galvanisation is more expensive than other alternatives in the first place, money is highly likely to be saved in the long term thanks to its longevity.


The total coverage of the process means that galvanised steel should last a long time in situ. The lack of uncovered spots ensures there is a fantastic level of corrosion protection, keeping your steel safe and well. Thanks to the international standards that apply to galvanising steel, those in construction have peace of mind that parts are free from black spots, rust stains or other imperfections.

Easy to inspect

Building inspectors are easily able to inspect galvanised steel when carrying out routine checks. Galvanised steel is easy to inspect by sight, and there are a range of non-invasive techniques for testing the thickness of a coating if necessary.


Are Gorillas behaving differently because of humans?

With growing demand for research programmes into gorillas and into eco-tourism, the impact of the increase in human contact on gorillas is a mounting issue, both in terms of the transmission of disease and the psychological impact on the apes. Research is required into the best way of managing this as tourism in this area develops.

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The Study

Bai Hokou is a study site located in the Central African Republic. It was chosen in 1997 as the base for a long-term project looking at developing gorilla sites for research and eco-tourism. Featured in the American Journal of Primatology, one of the aims of the site was to study the effects of human impact on gorillas and consider how best to minimise the disruption to their lives.

The findings of a preliminary study in 2006 found that the presence of researchers and tourists correlated with an increase in aggressive behaviours and a decrease in resting behaviours amongst the gorillas. There is a distance recommendation of at least seven metres between humans and gorillas, and further research has been carried out looking into whether this is sufficient. The results indicated that when the distance between humans and gorillas increased to ten metres, there was a significant decrease in aggression. The research also found that an increase in the number of people present resulted in a decrease in group feeding and an increase in aggression.  With these kind of statistics you have to wonder why we keep going to disrupt them and why not just watch them from the comfort of our own home and let them live peacefully.  Just switch on your television and go to the nature channel and hope your equipment all works including your aerial.  If its faulty you could always contact a TV Aerial Repair Cheltenham company to come and fix it for you.
The Recommendations

There were two main recommendations that came out of this study. Firstly, to aim to ensure a human-gorilla distance of at least ten metres where possible; and secondly, to limit research or tourist group sizes to up to six people if necessary, but to just three if possible.

As eco-tourism grows in areas like Uganda gorilla trekking, it’s essential to continue researching its impact to limit and manage any detrimental effects. If you’re considering this sort of eco-tourism, established tour operators who will be experienced in offering ethical trips.

When eco-tourism is done well it can have a significant positive impact on local communities, providing income and employment as well as conservation. Ongoing research is needed into how this can be done with the least impact on gorilla populations.

Tips for Staining Your Wood Windows

Now that you’ve bought your wood windows you can toss aside that window buying guide and refer to this window staining guide to learn the best tips for staining your wood windows. This is not a difficult task to accomplish, pretty much anyone can do it as you don’t need to be a seasoned do-it-yourselfer to make your raleigh replacement windows look terrific.

But there is a right way and a wrong way do to finish your wood and we are going to walk you through everything that you need to know to get the job done.

Selecting the Right Stain

First things first, find the stain color that best suits your home. This is going to be different than selecting the best paint as wood stain is designed to give your project a smooth, natural aesthetic, unlike paint which is usually chosen as a means of bringing a splash of color or contrast to existing color that is already present in the home.

You will find a myriad of options for wood stain shades and choosing the one that fits best is going to take some careful consideration of the appearance you wish to present. So, think about what might look appropriate in your home or if you’re still not sure, consult with a stain expert at your local hardware retailer.

Staining Your Wood

So now you’ve chosen the stain you want, it’s time to apply it to your wood windows. You’re going to need a list of materials, all of which are easily acquired when you buy your stain. You’ll need things like sandpaper, painter’s tape, a bunch of dry, clean cloths, a cleaning solution (vinegar-based preferable), your wood stain, a wood conditioner that you will apply ahead of your stain, some oil-based wood varnish, and brushes. Lots of them!

Now, let’s get to work:


You are not going to stain the window in its current form. You need to break it down into separated components. Don’t be lazy, this is an important step and you need to do it. Be sure to apply your painter’s tape to the glass so your lines are sharp and clean (and you don’t make a mess on the glass).

Detach the hardware and other pieces that could interfere with you doing a complete stain job.

Prep the Wood

Here is where you need your sandpaper. You are going to sand the surfaces you plan to stain, going with the grain until any impurities and rough patches are removed. Do this thoroughly as it will affect the look of your window frame if you cut corners.

Glass Surface Washing

Now you want to get that vinegar-based cleaning solution and wash down the glass of your window. Get every corner and don’t worry about streaking. If you find some streaks after you’ve rubbed the glass down completely, some clean water should help you get those streaks removed.

Mask the Glass

Grab your painter’s tape and mask off the glass and all other areas you do NOT want marred by your stain finish. This doesn’t need to be perfect, just enough to protect the pertinent areas.

Pre-stain the Wood

You want to ensure that your finished product is free from imperfections and the stain finish is smooth and even throughout every area of your wood surface. So, you will need to pre-stain the wood with your conditioner. This isn’t a tough step to perform, just follow the directions on the conditioner you purchased and you’ll be ready to get the job done.

Stain the Wood

Here we go, now the big step. You will need to be careful and thorough about applying your stain to the wood. It might require more than one coat to get the appearance you want on your windows. Don’t be sparing with the stain either, you can slather it on there to ensure that you fully saturate the wood surface. Wipe away excess stain with a rag and get a smaller brush to remove stain from crevices.


Once you’ve finished applying the stain to your desired color, allow it to dry fully before you finish the wood surface with your oil-based wood varnish. Again, follow the directions on the bottle to help assist you in applying it properly and, much like with the stain, you might be required to apply more than one coat to the wood to achieve the aesthetic you have in mind. Take this step slowly as well and be thorough about your application.